Fertilizers and manures
Continuous cropping without addition of plant nutrients depletes native sources in soil and affects crop yield. Hence it is essential to add plant nutrients through external sources for sustainable garlic production. Organic manures add plant nutrients and improves soil organic carbon, soil physical environment and soil microbial activity.
Based on the field experiments carried out through All India Network Research Project on Onion and Garlic at different locations, application of 75:40:40:40 kg NPKS/ha along with a combination of two or three organic manures (FYM, Poultry manure and Vermicompost) equivalent to 75 kg N/ha (7.5 t Poultry manure or 7.5 t vermicompost or 15 t FYM/ha) is recommended for Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu (Ooty).
Application of 100:50:50:50 kg NPKS + 20t FYM/ha is recommended for Haryana, Uttarkhand and Uttar Pradesh. Recommended organic manures should be applied before last ploughing and mixed well in the soil. One third of nitrogen and full recommended dose of phosphorus, potassium and sulphur should be applied as basal at the time of planting. Remaining two third of nitrogen should be applied in two equal splits at 30 and 45 days after planting.
If the soil test shows a deficiency of any micronutrients, besides NPKS, the deficient micronutrient should also be applied to correct the deficiency. If the plant is diagnosed with micronutrient deficiency during growth stages, the deficiency should be corrected by either foliar or soil application of concerned nutrients, immediately.
• ZnSO @ 10 kg/ha as basal is recommended in areas having Zn deficiency.
• Borax @ 10 kg/ha is recommended for areas having boron deficiency.
• FYM @ 15 t/ha is recommended in areas having multi-micronutrient deficiency along with foliar application of micronutrient mixture (Fe: 2.5%, Zn: 0.3%, Mn: 1%, Cu: 1.0%, B: 0.2%) at 45 and 60 days after transplanting for increasing onion productivity.
Foliar application of major nutrients
• If the crop growth is poor, foliar application of water soluble NPK fertilizers (20:20:20 or 19:19:19) in onion @ 5g/liter at 30, 45 and 60 days after transplanting is recommended for improved yield.
Biofertilizers are efficient strains of microorganisms that improve plant nutrient uptake.When applied to seed or soil, the microbes colonize the rhizosphere or the interior of the plant and promote growth by increasing availability of primary nutrients to the host plant by biological nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization and stimulating plant growth through the synthesis of growth-promoting substances. Based on the experiments carried out at DOGR, biofertilizersAzospirillum and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria @ 5 kg/ha each are recommended for garlic. Recommended biofertilizers should be mixed with 100-200 kg FYM having 50% moisture and stored overnight. The mixture should be applied before planting.